Open A2 - Remote Pilot Course
- Theory Course.
- IAA Theory Exam.
- Guidance & Ebook on Self-Practical training.
- In Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) distance of the remote pilot.
- Within 120m of the earth's surface.
- Operating the unmanned aircraft no closer than 30m (5m in certain circumstances) horizontally from uninvolved persons.
- Utilising an EU C2 Class labelled unmanned aircraft.
- In Geographic Zones where Open category operations are permitted.
Start When You Want. Fully Online & Self-Paced Learning
Develop your Knowledge
Ultimate Course for the Open A2 Category
What Students Think!
32 Short Videos
10 Reading Sections
60 Practice Questions
5 Year Certification
Open Category Operations
Frequently asked questions
What does the course involve?
The course is a series of well
presented and clear videos where we explain the basic EU drone rules as they
apply to the A1 A3 and additionally the A2 sub-category of the
Open Category. You complete the course online and at your own pace. We provide
support and help with questions and queries through [email protected] or
The A2 sub-category is the most advanced training course in the Open category allowing pilots fly in the A1 A2 & A3 sub-categories. The A2 category is an important and useful sub-category as it allows qualified pilots fly slightly heavier drones, max 2kg, near people, or in time with C2 labelled drone, max 4kg. The weight of these drones means 'uninvolved persons' are at a high risk of danger when these drone are flown close to them. Therefore, to mitigate this increased risk, regulations require more advanced training for the A2 sub-category.
The duration of the course is approximately 5 hours.
The course complies with the requirements of
Regulation (EU) 2019/947.
The course is broken down into short lessons. Once
you complete a lesson, you can save your progress and return to complete the
There is a regulatory requirement to have an exam.
To help, we have a short and simple question session after each lesson. The
answers are all contained in the subject matter of the video lessons.
Once your course is complete, you qualify for an EU 'certificate of competency' in the Open A2 category. On Safe Drone Academy's recommendation, this certificate is issued to you by the Irish Aviation Authority (IAA). This 'certificate of competency' is valid for the A2 Open Category operations across the wider EU.
What are the Open, Specific and Certified Categories?
EU regulation divides
drone operations into 3 main categories. The Open Category is for low risk
operations. The Specific Category is for medium to high risk operations. The
Certified Category is for the highest risk operations.
Depending on the risk your flying poses to those around you, a pilot will need to train to operate in one of the 3 categories. The higher the risk the more training the pilot requires.
The Open category is further divided into sub-categories A1, A2 and A3. This course covers pilot training requirements for Open sub-categories A1 A2 & A3.
How do I determine which category I fall under: Open, Specific or Certified?
A drone can be operated in the
“Open" category when it:
- bears one of the CE class marks 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 (Note: not currently available on the market);
- is privately built and with a max take-off weight of <25kg;
- it is purchased before the 1st of January 2024, with no CE class marking with a max take-off weight of <25kg;
- will not be operated directly over 'uninvolved persons', unless it bears a CE class mark '0' or is lighter than 250g. (Please refer to subcategories of operations: A1, A2 and A3 to find out where you can fly with your drone).
- will never be flown over 'assemblies of people' (see FAQ further down for definition).
- will be maintained in Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) or be assisted by a UA observer;
- is flown at no more than 120 metres above the closest point of the surface;
- will not carry dangerous goods and not drop any material.
- remains outside the required 'geographic area'. See Safe Drone Airspace Map (Airspace Map). Also, see additional FAQ
In all other cases it must be operated in the Specific or Certified category.
Which Sub-Category (A1, A2 or A3) of the Open Category do I fly in?
The sub-category a pilot is required to fly in is determined either by,
• the label affixed to your drone (CE class mark 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4);
• the weight of your drone, for privately built drone and for a drone without a CE Class markings (called legacy drones);
Note: Currently there are no drones on the market that have a CE Class (0-4) marking/sticker. Until such time as there are drones with CE Class markings are available, the weight of your drone will determine what sub-category of the Open category you can fly in. (Note: by regulation all drones placed on the market after 01 Jan 2024 must have a CE Class marking).
See table below. Depending on the weight of your legacy drone you are required to maintain certain horizontal distances from uninvolved people to reduce the risk of injury to them in case you lose control of your drone. If you find any of these restrictions too limiting for your proposed flying requirements, you need to move into the Specific Category.
|Sub-Category||Drone Max Take-Off Weight||Restrictions||Example Drone|
|All||-Max Height 120m agl
-Visual Line of Sight (VLOS)
-No Dropping Goods
-No Carrying Danger Goods
-Outside specific 'geographic zones'
|A1||<250g & Max Speed 19ms||-Fly over 'uninvolved persons'
-No fly over 'assemblies of people'
|DJI Mavic Mini|
|250g - <500g||-No intentional flight over 'uninvolved persons'
-No fly over 'assemblies of people'
|A2||500g - <2kg||-No closer than 50m horizontally from 'uninvolved persons'
-No fly over 'assemblies of people'
- Must complete Open A2 training
|DJI Mavic Air
DJI Mavic Pro
DJI Mavic 2
|A3||500g - <25kg||-No 'uninvolved persons' present within the flying area.
-Flying area must not be within 150m horizontally from residential, commercial, industrial or recreational areas.
Note 1: After 01 Jan 2024 all 'legacy' (non CE Class) drones greater than 250g will be restricted to the A3 category.
Note 2: In time and in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2019/945, CE class 0-4 drones will enter the market.
CE Class 0 drones will be valid in A1
CE Class 1 drones will be valid in A1 with the same restriction as a 250g - <500g above.
CE Class 2 drones will be valid in A2
CE Class 3 drones will be valid in A3
CE Class 4 drones will be valid in A3
What am I allowed do when flying in the Open A2 Category?
- You may fly in urban areas and sparsely populated areas
- You may fly for recreational and commercial reasons
- You can fly to a minimum of 50m horizontally from uninvolved persons when using a 'legacy' non CE Class drone that weighs between 500g and <2kg.
- You can fly to a minimum of 30m horizontally from uninvolved persons when using a CE Class 2 drone. In certain defined circumstances you can reduce this to 5m.
- you must remain in Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) with your drone at all times.
- you must not fly higher than 120m above the closest point of the surface of the earth.
- you must not drop any goods from your drone.
- you must not carry any 'dangerous goods'.
- you are restricted from operating in many 'geographic zones". See Safe Drone Airspace Map (Airspace Map).
How long is my 'certificate of competency' valid for?
The A2 'certificate of competency' is valid for 5 years.
How do I re-validate my A2 'certificate of competency'?
In accordance with Regulation (EU) 2019/947 UAS.Open.070, there are two scenarios,
Scenario 1: Re-validation before the expiry date of my A2 'certificate of competency':
• Take the online refresher course.
• Take the online multiple choice exam.
Scenario 2: Re-validation after the expiry date of my A2 'certificate of competency':
• Take the online refresher course.
• Take the online multiple choice exam.
I only fly for fun and recreation. Do I need to train?
Under the new EU regulation, whether you want to fly for recreational, commercial or aerial work or research purposes, there is now a regulatory requirement for pilots to complete a minimum amount of training depending on the category of operation they wish to fly in.
Can I fly wherever I like when operating in the Open Category?
Generally, you must ensure the 'geographic zone' you fly in is approved for Open category flying operations. You need to check before you fly.
In Ireland there are strict restrictions on where you can fly if you are only qualified to fly in the Open Category. You can check out Safe Drone Academy's airspace map to find the 'geographic areas' that Open category pilots must remain clear of, or are severely restricted when operating within them (e.g. max height 15m). If you need to fly in these areas you need a permission to fly in the Specific Category.
Click for Airspace Map.
What happens after I complete the course?
You will need to open a 'remote pilot' account with the Irish Aviation Authority (IAA) (https://iaa.mysrs.ie).
Within your MYSRS account, you will request the Open A2 certificate. If you have an OPen A1/A3 certificate from another EU country you will upload this certificate and your Remote Pilot number as part of your OPen A2 application. You will then be given an RPCXXXXX application number. You provide this number to Safe Drone Academy and we will then verify your Open A2 course completion with the Irish Aviation Authority through our special access to the MYSRS system.
The IAA will then issue your Open A2 Certificate of Competency. The IAA charge €45 for this.
You should note, you may also need to register as an 'operator'. See FAQ on who needs to register.
Does this course allow me fly in other EU member states?
Yes, within the limits of the A1 A2 & A3 category.
The 'certificate of competency' a pilot receives on completion of this course is valid in all EU members states. It will allow you fly within the A1 A2 & A3 restrictions and in the 'geographic zones' each member states permits A1 A2 & A3 category flying. You will need to check local aviation resources to identify these areas. In Ireland, you can check Safe Drone Academy's Airspace Map.
There is no requirement to advise the aviation authority of the EU member state you are flying in that you will be flying A1 A2 & A3 operations in their country. However, you are required to produce your Open A2 'certificate of competency' and indeed the 'operator registration number' if asked by an autorised person of the EU member state. This is very much like producing your drivers licence when driving abroad.
I have to stay away from an 'uninvolved person'. Who are they?
Defined by regulation, an uninvolved person "means persons who are not participating in the UAS operation or who are not aware of the instructions and safety precautions given by the UAS (drone) operator”.
A person is considered 'involved' if they decides to be a part of the operation, understand the risk and is able to check the position of the drone while it is flying.
Therefore in order to be considered ‘involved’ in the operation, a person needs to:
- receive from the drone operator/remote pilot instructions and safety precautions to be applied in case of an emergency situation;
- give consent to be a part of the operation (e.g. a consent to be overflown by the drone); the consent needs to be explicit;
- not be busy with other activities such that the person cannot check the position of the drone and, in case of incident take action to avoid being hit by the drone.
Writing on a ticket that during an event a drone will be used, is not considered sufficient, since the drone operator needs to receive individual explicit consent and make sure people understand the risk and the procedures to be taken in case of emergency.
During the operation it is expected that involved persons follow the trajectory of the drone and are ready to take action to protect themselves in case the drone has an unexpected behavior.
During the UAS operation, if people are too busy to monitor the trajectory of the drone, then these people cannot be considered as involved.
Examples of uninvolved person:
- individuals or small groups walking on a street;
- people in a beach or in a park.
An uninvolved person is not only those exposed directly to a drone, but could also mean a person who is in a bus, car, etc., i.e. is indirectly exposed.
For example, if a drone is flying over a vehicle, its driver should be considered as an ‘uninvolved person’. The reason behind this is, if a drone is flying close to a vehicle (even if not impacting it) it could possibly distract its driver and therefore lead to a car accident.
What is an 'assembly of people'?
An 'assembly of people' is referred to as a crowd. It is not defined by a specific number of people, but is related to the ability for an individual to move around in order to avoid a drone which is out of control.
If a crowd or gathering of people is so densely packed that the possibility to freely escape or move away from a drone is limited. The density of people reduces their ability to move quickly and so is considered an 'assembly of people'.
Note: No drone should be flown over or near an 'assembly of people' without specific permission from aviation authorities and only after a special safety case is made. Contact Safe Drone Academy to acquire such permission.
Examples of 'assemblies of people' include:
- sport, cultural, religious or political events;
- crowded beaches or parks on a sunny day;
- busy commercial streets during the opening hours of the shops;
Do I need to register?
Drones do not need to be registered but you, as a drone operator/owner, must register yourself or your business. You do so with the Aviation Authority of the EU country you have a residence in. Registration is required under Atricle 14 of Regulation (EU) 2019/947.
You register once, independently of how many drones you operate or whether you operate in the Open or Specific category. Your registration will be valid for a period defined by your national Aviation Authority after which you need to renew it. In Ireland, registration is valid for two (2) years.
See FAQ 'Who is a drone operator' for detailed explanation as to who an operator is.
You do not need to register yourself if your drone(s):
- weighs less than 250g and has no camera or other sensor able to detect personal data; or
- even with a camera or other sensor, weighs less than 250g, but is a toy (this means that its documentation shows that it complies with ‘toy’ Directive 2009/48/EC);
Operator registration can be completed on the IAAs website www.mysrs.ie.
When you register you will receive an individual 'Operator Registration Number'. This number must be displayed on every drone you as an operator utilise (own or lease/rent). The number must be easily readable and may take the form of a QR code. Affixing the label to the inside of a battery compartment is also acceptable where it cannot be clearly displayed externally.
Who is a drone operator?
A drone operator is any natural person or an organisation, who/that owns the drone(s) or rents/leases the drone(s).
You can be both a drone operator and a remote pilot if you are also the person that actually flies the drone. In this case you should register as an Operator.
However, it can be the case where you are the remote pilot without being a drone operator. For example, if you are a remote pilot working for a company which provide services with drones. Here, the company is the drone operator and you are the remote pilot. The company needs to register as a drone operator. You, the remote pilot, need to complete the minimum amount of training in the category you will fly. Like an airline operator, a drone operator can have many remote pilots flying for them.
If you bought a drone to fly it in your leisure time, you are both the drone operator and the remote pilot. You must register as a drone operator.
If you bought a drone to give away as a gift, the person who will receive the gift and then fly the drone will be the drone operator and the remote pilot.
Who is the remote pilot?
A remote pilot is a natural person responsible for the safety of a drone flight and ensuring the flight is conducted legally. The remote pilot can either manually control the drone or monitor the drone if it is flying on auto-pilot.
The remote pilot must always be ready to take control in case the drone goes out of control or a situation requires the remote pilots intervention.
A remote pilot must train to a minimum standard depending on the category of operation (Open or Specific) they wish to fly in.
A remote pilot does not have to register unless they are also the drone operator.
Are there any age restrictions for operating in the Open Category?
The minimum age is 16 years for remote pilots in the Open and Specific categories when flying by themselves (solo). There is no minimum age if the remote pilot is being supervised by another suitably qualified remote pilot who is 16 years or older.
Some aviation authorities across the EU may have lower age limits. In Ireland the minimum age is 16. In Ireland the age restriction is 16.
There is no minimum age for flying CE Class C0 marked drones, when they become available, under subcategory A1.
Is flying with goggles (first person view) authorised?
The regulation allows the remote pilot fly without keeping direct eye contact with the drone, provided they have an observer beside them who must maintain visual line of sight with the drone at all times. The observer must advise the Remote Pilot if the drone will collide with an aircraft, obstacle or another person. The observe must stand beside the remote pilot and communicate instructions.
As a drone racer which category and sub-category of operation do I fall under?
Normally drone races are organised by clubs and associations. In this case they may have received an 'operational authorisation' by the aviation authority (IAA) in accordance with Art 16 of Regulation (EU) 2019/947, covering also the organisation of such events.
If instead you want to conduct a race not within a club or association and no spectators (in this context meaning uninvolved persons, see definition above) are present, you fall under the “Open category” and you can operate under sub-category A3 (ie. no uninvolved persons present in the flying area and flying area is located 150m horizontally from residential, commercial, industrial and recreational areas).
If there are spectators the operation falls in the “specific category” and you need to apply for an 'operational authorisation' by the aviation authority.
I fly model aircraft. Do I need to take a course?
Model aircraft fall under the requirements of the new EU regulation. Where the term drone is used on this course or in this FAQ it should be understood that it includes model aircraft.
Often, model aircraft operators and pilots will become members of model aircraft clubs. Pilot members of this club can fly in accordance with the permission (authorisation) the club has attained from the aviation authority. This is only applicable at the clubs location or as allowed by their permission. Pilots must meet minimum training & qualification standards in compliance with the clubs permission. This will at a minimum need to meet the A1 & A3 requirements (this course) but could involve more complex training requirements.
A model aircraft 'operator' wishing to operate outside the bounds of a club will need to comply with all the requirements of the regulation including registration. They may also need a permission (authorisation) from the aviation authority.
A model aircraft pilot operating outside the bounds of a club and wishing to fly will need to meet the full requirements of the regulation including completing this A1 & A3 course (this course) or as required the A2 course or the Specific Category Pilot Competency Course depending on the risk level, drone weight and complexity of the flying.
Model Aircraft clubs, operators or pilots wishing to use Safe Drone Academy training should take a course or contact Safe Drone Academy on [email protected] or +353870919600 for further information.